Endnotes
1 Pew Internet and American Life Project. "Adults and Social Network Web Sites," (2009). Available: http://www.pewinternet.org/PPF/r/272/report_display.asp

2 Saul Berman, Bill Battino, Louisa Shipnuck, and Andreas Neus. "The End of Advertising as We Know It," IBM Institute for Business Value, (2007).

3 Arielle Emmett, "Networking News: Traditional News Outlets Turn to Social Networking Web Sites in an Effort to Build Their Online Audiences," American Journalism Review 30 (6, 2009): 40-43.

4 Zizi Papacharissi and Alan M. Rubin, "Predictors of Internet Use," Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 44 (4, 2000): 175-197.

5 Arielle Emmett, "Networking News."

6 Mathew Frase and Soumitra Dutta, "Obama and the Facebook Effect," MediaWeek 18 (42, 2008): 10.

7 John Monberg, "Trajectories of Computer-Mediated Communication Research," Southern Communication Journal 70 (3, 2005): 181-186.

8 Michael Hardey, "Mediated Relationships: Authenticity and the Possibility of Romance," Information, Communication, & Society, 7 (2, 2004): 207-222.

9 Catherine M. Ridings and David Gefen, "Virtual Community Attraction: Why People Hang Out Online," Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 10 (1, 2004).

10 Jannie Roed, "Language Learner Behavior in a Virtual Environment," Computer Assisted Language Learning, 16 (2-3, 2003): 155–172.

11 Chun-Hsiung, and Chung-Wang Tsou, "User Acceptance of Computer-Mediated Communication: The SkypeOut Case," Expert Systems with Applications 36 (3, 2009): 4595-4603.

12 Olivine Wai-Yu Lo and Louis Leung, "Effects of Gratification Opportunities and Gratifications-obtained on Preferences of Instant Messaging and e-mail Among College students," Telematics & Informatics 26 (2, 2009): 156-166.

13 Adam Tyma, "Rules of Interchange: Privacy in Online Social Communities--A Rhetorical Critique of MySpace.Com," Journal of the Communication, Speech & Theatre Association of North Dakota 20 (2007): 31-39

14 Jeffery F. Rayport, "Social Networks Are the New Web Portals. Business," (1/22/2009). Week Online. Availlable: http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/jan2009/tc20090121_557202.htm

15 Pew Internet and American Life Project, "Adults and Social Network."

16 Lesa Stern and Kim Taylor, "Social Networking on Facebook," Journal of the Communication, Speech & Theatre Association of North Dakota 20 (2007): 9-20.

17 Fortune, "Facebook Stares Down Success," (2005) Available: http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2005/11/28/8361945/index.htm

18 Facebook.com, (2009) Available: http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics

19 ibid

20 Stanley J. Baran and Dennis K. Davis, Mass Communication Theory: Foundations, Ferment, and Future (4th Ed. Belmont, CA: Thompson Wadsworth, 2006).

21 Mark Levy and Sven Windahl (1985), "The Concept of Audience Activity," in Media Gratifications Research: Current Perspectives, eds. Karl Erik Rosengren, Lawrence A. Wenner and Philip Palmgreen (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1985), 110.

22 Stanley J. Baran and Dennis K. Davis, Mass Communication Theory..

23 Jay G. Blumler, "The Role of Theory in Uses and Gratifications Studies," Communication Research 6 (1979): 9-36.

24 Stanley J. Baran and Dennis K. Davis, Mass Communication Theory.

25 Alan Rubin, "Media Uses-and-Effects: A Uses-and-Gratifications Perspective," in Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research, eds. Jennings Bryant and Dolf Zillman (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1994).

26 ibid

27 Zizi Papacharissi and Alan M. Rubin, "Predictors of Internet Use."

28 Cristina Maria Balteretu and Delia Cristina Balaban. "Motivation in Using Social
Network Sites by Romanian Students. A Qualitative Approach, " Journal of Media
Research 3.1 (2010): 67-74.

29Valerie Barker, "Older Adolescents' Motivations for Social Network Site Use: The Influence of Gender, Group Identity, and Collective Self-Esteem," CyberPsychology & Behavior 12.2 (2009): 209-213.

30 Pavica Sheldon, "Student Favorite: Facebook and Motives for Its Use,"
Southwestern Mass Communication Journal 23.2 (2008): 39-53.

31 Urista, Mark A., Dong Qingwen, and Kenneth D. Day. "Explaining Why Young Adults
Use MySpace and Facebook Through Uses and Gratifications Theory," Human Communication
12.2 (2009): 215-229.

32 Naeemah Clark, Shu-Yueh Lee and Lori Boyer, "A Place of Their Own: An Exploratory Study of College Students' Uses of Facebook," (presented at the International communication Association annual meeting, 2007).

33 Zizi Papacharissi and Alan M. Rubin, "Predictors of Internet Use."

34 John Raacke and Jennifer Bonds-Raacke, "Myspace and Facebook: Applying the Uses and Gratifications Theory to Exploring Friend-Networking Sites," Cyberpsychology & Behavior 11 (2, 2008).

35 Monica Ancu and Raluca Cozma. "MySpace Politics: Uses and Gratifications of
Befriending Candidates," Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 53.4 (2009): 567-583.

36 Melanie C. Green and Timothy C. Brock, "The Role of Transportation in the Persuasiveness of Public Narratives," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 79 (2000): 701–721; Jeanne Steele and Jane Brown, "Adolescent Room Culture: Studying Media in the Context of Everyday Life," Journal of Youth and Adolescence 24 (5, 1995): 551–576.

37 Jason Mittell, Genre and Television: From Cop Shows to Cartoons in American Culture (New York: Routledge, 2004).

38 Alice Hall, "The Social Implications of Enjoyment of Different Types of Music, Movies, and Television Programming," Western Journal of Communication 71 (4, 2007): 259–271.

39 Jason Mittell, "Television Talk Shows and Cul;tural Hierarchies," Journal o f Popular Film and Television 31 (1:2003):36

40 Jeanne Steele and Jane Brown, "Adolescent Room Culture."

41 Pew Internet and American Life Project. "Adults and Social Network."

42 Naeemah Clark, Shu-Yueh Lee and Lori Boyer, "A Place of Their Own."

43 John Raacke and Jennifer Bonds-Raacke, "Myspace and Facebook."

44 Zizi Papacharissi and Alan M. Rubin, "Predictors of Internet Use."

45 Jason Mittell, Genre and television; Alice Hall, "The Social Implications."
46 Alice Hall, "The Social Implications."; Jason Mittell, "Television Talk Shows and Cultural Hierarchies," Journal of Popular Film & Television 31 (1, 2003): 36.

47 Melanie C. Green and Timothy C. Brock, "The Role of Transportation";
Melanie C. Green, Jennifer Garst and Timothy C. Brock, in ThePower of Fiction: Determinants and Boundaries ed. L. J. Shrum (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2004) 161-179.

48 Jeanne Steele and Jane Brown, "Adolescent Rom Culture."

49 Zizi Papacharissi and Alan M. Rubin, "Predictors of Internet Use,"

50 Stanley J. Baran and Dennis K. Davis, Mass Communication Theory..

51 Melanie C. Green & Timothy C. Brock, The role of transportation"; Melanie C. Green, Jennifer Garst and Timothy C. Brock, in The Power of Fiction; Jeanne Steele and Jane Brown, "Adolescent Room Culture."

52 Jason Mittell, "Television Talk Shows."

53 Jeanne Steele & Jane Brown, "Adolescent Room Culture."

54 http://www.utb.edu/vpaa/admin/Pages/FastFacts.aspx

55 Pew Internet and American Life Project. "Adults and Social Network."

56 Alan Rubin, "Media Uses-and-Effects."

57 Jeanne Steele & Jane Brown, "Adolescent Room Culture."

58 Alice Hall, "The Social Implications." .