Notes for

Combatting Advertising Decline in Magazines During WWII:
Image Ads Promoting Wartime Themes and the War Loan Drives

1Jules Backman, Antonin Basch, Solomon Fabricant, Martin R. Gainsburgh, Emanuel Stein, War and Defense Economics (New York: Rinehart and Company, Inc., 1952), 351.

2Wartime Rationing and Consumption (Geneva: League of Nations, 1942), 87, as cited in Backman, War and Defense Economics, 366.

3R. M. Dobie, "How Agencies Influence Clients to Continue Ads," Editor & Publisher (March 7, 1942), 9.

4Robert Griffith, "The Selling of America: The Advertising Council and American Politics, 1942-1960," Business History Review 57 (Autumn 1983), 389.

5Mary Alice Sentman and Patrick S. Washburn, "How Excess Profits Tax Brought Ads to Black Newspapers in World War II," Journalism Quarterly 64 (Winter 1987), 769-774, 863.

6See Jules Backman, Advertising and Competition (New York: New York University, 1967); and Jules Backman, Antonin Basch, Soloman Fabricant, Martin R. Gainsburgh, and Emanuel Stein, War and Defense Economics (New York: Rinehart and Company, Inc., 1952); and David M. Blank, "Some comments on the Role of Advertising in the American Economy, in Reflections on Progress in Marketing, edited by L. George Smith (Chicago: American Marketing Association, 1964); and Neil H. Borden, The Economic Effects of Advertising (Chicago: Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1942); and Donald M. Hobart and J.P. Wood, Selling Forces (New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1953); and J.M. Keyes, How to Pay for the War (New York: Harcourt, Brace, and Company, 1941); and Horst Mendershausen, The Economics of War (New York: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1943); Tibor Scitovsky, edward Shaw, and Lorrie Tarshis, Mobilizing Resources for War (New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, Inc., 1951); and James D. Woolf, Advertising to the Mass Market (New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1946).

7Griffith, "The Selling of America," 390.

8R. M. Dobie, "National Advertisers Take Price Ceilings in Stride," Editor & Publisher (May 2, 1942), 11.

9Thomas A. Bailey and David M. Kennedy, The American Pageant (Lexington, Mass: D.C. Heath & Company, 1992), 797-800.

10American Newspaper Publishers Association, Advertising Bulletin 14 (August 14, 1942), 3.

11"ANA, Treasury Clarify Deductibility of Ads," Editor & Publisher (August 29, 1942), 10.

12"Internal Revenue States Tax Policy on Ad Expenses," Editor & Publisher (October 3, 1942), 4.

13Shelley Tracy, "Advertising of War Bonds Can Avert Forced Investment," Editor & Publisher (October 3, 1942), 3.

14Emmett S. Redford, "Field Administration of Wartime Rationing," General Publication 4 (Washington: Office of Temporary Controls, Office of Price Administration, May 1945), 2; rationing dates and duration on the products were as follows: bicycles: August 1942 to September 1944; fuel oil and kerosene: October 1942 to August 1945; shoes: October 1942 to September 1945; coffee: November 1942 to July 1943; and stoves: December 1942 to August 1945.

15"First Year of War Re-Emphasizes Advertising," Advertising Age (December 19, 1942), 8.

16See Appendices I through IV.

17"Newspaper War Bond Ads Totalled $26,000,000," Editor & Publisher (January 23, 1943), 10.

18"72 Million Ad Lines Used for 2nd War Loan Drive," Editor & Publisher (May 22, 1943), 8.

19See "Advertisers Use War Themes," Business and Commerce, August 1943, and Stanley G. Lehigh, "Brand names Will Be forgotten If Not Promoted," Editor & Publisher (July 31, 1943), 10.

20"Cooperation in Third War Loan Drive," Editor & Publisher (July 31, 1943), 10.

21See Appendices 1 through IV.

22"Bonds Still Top War Ad Themes," Advertising Age (August 12, 1944), 4.

23"Record Advertising Linage Marked in Fifth Loan," Editor & Publisher (August 19, 1944), 15.

24"War Loan Drive Plans Get Under Way," Editor & Publisher (October 7, 1944), 13.

25See Appendices I through IV.

26"Advertising Must Be Geared to Sell 85 Million E Bonds," Minutes and Proceedings of the AAAA (April 1945).

27See issues of Editor & Publisher and Advertising Age for June and July 1945.

28"Treasury Statement Seen as Reassurance for Advertisers," Advertising Age (June 8, 1942), 1.