Volume 4, Number 1



The Cradle of Professional Journalistic Education in the Mid-Nineteenth Century

Stephen A. Banning

Texas A&M University

ABSTRACT
The concept of professional journalistic education did not begin with Joseph Pulitzer as some traditional histories assert.  Press association minutes from the mid-nineteenth century indicate that journalistic education was a professional ideal as early as the mid-nineteenth century.  While it is possible Pulitzer developed his concepts individually, he may have appropriated his ideas from those who voiced them decades earlier.  It appears that some mid-nineteenth century journalists were not just interested in establishing trade schools but also in establishing professional university education, which, in turn, indicates a more visionary approach than has been previously acknowledged.
 

INTRODUCTION
Recent evidence has come to light that indicates the originators of the concept of a school of journalism came before either Joseph Pulitzer or Walter Williams.1 The importance of an earlier starting date for journalism education lies in the fact that many historians link the start of journalism education in the twentieth century with a broad journalistic effort to professionalize journalism, which was said to have begun at the same time. Thus, pushing back the start date of journalism education efforts would raise the possibility that journalistic professionalization began much earlier than current journalism histories assert.

The purpose of this article is to present a new perspective of journalism education history
based on primary sources from the mid-nineteenth century. This challenges traditional
claims that Pulitzer originated the concept of university journalism education and emphasizes
the link between the development of journalistic education and journalists' efforts to
professionalize.

In attempting to gain a more complete picture of what some journalists thought about journalism education in the mid-nineteenth century, this study has utilized the first ten years of minutes of the Missouri Press Association (MPA) from 1867 to 1876.2 These minutes indicate Missouri journalists in the mid-nineteenth century were already advocating professional university education.

WHY MISSOURI?

One might ask why Missouri editors were apparently particularly interested in journalistic education. There may have been several reasons. An influential MPA member was one possibility. Founding MPA member John Marmaduke was interested in higher education and later was a member of the University of Missouri Board of Curators. His interest in education and journalism appears to have influenced him to advocate journalism education. Another possibility was the time period. The mid-nineteenth century was a time when professions were becoming popular, and education was one rung in the ladder toward achieving that end.3 MPA members saw education as concomitant to turning journalism into a profession.4 It is also possible that the Missouri frontier climate encouraged an interest in professionalism. Rural publishers might have seen professionalism as an attractive, if self-serving, way to raise their status.

Conversely, metropolitan publishers with larger circulations might have seen professionalism as a danger to the bottom line. Missouri publishers also may have felt more of a need to elevate their status than did their counterparts in more settled parts of the country. Perhaps professionalization was seen as the easiest path to journalistic prestige.

"THE CLUBS ARE SOCIAL GATHERINGS"
But were the mid-nineteenth century press clubs professional associations? Traditional journalism texts have focused on mid-nineteenth century press clubs as being social clubs or business-oriented clubs. In Frederic Hudson's 1873 book, Journalism inthe United States,he characterized the New York Press Club meetings as unimportant, remarking: "We donít suppose its [the New York Press Club] dinners, or its speeches, or the intercourse of its members improved the tone of the Press. . . . They continued to criticize and abuse each other, as they always did and always will."5 Hudson further indicated the non-professional nature of the meetings when he commented, "The Clubs are social gatherings. . . . None of these social circles are destined for long life but they are useful while they last."6

Augustus Maverick in 1870 also saw the New York Press Clubs as social in nature. He stated they formed for "the purpose of cultivating the social graces" 7 and criticized them for not maintaining a professional association such as those maintained by doctors, lawyers, and the clergy.8 Gerald Baldastyís book, The Commercialization of News in the Nineteenth Century, characterized the meetings as almost entirely based on business interest. He said:
State and regional publishers and editors organized the earliest newspaper trade associations. The founders of the Ohio Editorial Association, begun in 1849, touted it as a nonpartisan business organization. The first meeting of the Wisconsin Press Association, in 1853, dealt with advance payment of subscriptions, increased rates for legal printing, state printing contracts, and uniform prices for job work. In 1857, the Wisconsin Press Association attempted to set guidelines for advertising rates for member newspapers and to get the legislature to raise rates for printing state laws. One of the founders of the New York Press Association had established this organization mainly to try to set uniform advertising rates and, thus, to present a united front to advertisers.9

This business perspective is supposed to represent the entire landscape of press associations during the mid-nineteenth century, but in reality it was the exact opposite of the MPA membersí attitudes. While the goal of the New York Press Association may have been to set uniform advertising rates, the Missouri Press Associationís 1867 constitution prohibited the association from attempting such actions: "This association shall not have power to regulate prices of advertising."10 Thus, the MPA was different from the start.

HONORING THE PROFESSION

This presents an interesting question. Why was the MPA a strong group that sought a more educated class for its editors? One reference notes that the MPA met to honor the profession in which they served.11 Other references indicate the MPA formed to promote journalism as a profession.12 However this does not answer the underlying question of what motivated MPA members to feel this way.

Context may provide a clue. The MPA formed shortly after the Civil War, and it is possible that publishers felt they needed to form a professional organization to overcome residual bitterness.

Another contributing factor may have been the background of prominent Missouri publishers at the time. Quite a few had backgrounds in the traditional professions, and three of the members who exerted great influence in the starting of the MPA had professional backgrounds. Norman J. Colman, editor and publisher of the Rural World (still in existence today as the Missouri Ruralist), was MPA Recording Secretary in 1868 and chaired the MPA Committee on Arrangements in 1869. In 1868, he had been appointed by the governor to the University of Missouri Board of Curators and later that same year made an unsuccessful bid for lieutenant governor of the state. Several years later Colman was appointed the first Secretary of the United States Department of Agriculture. In regard to professional training, he received his teaching license at sixteen and was licensed to practice law a number of years later. He also helped organize the State Historical Society, the St. Louis Historical Society, and the St. Louis Fair Association.13

Then, there was Marmaduke. According to one history, "[His] scholarship in all branches of learning was surpassed by few men in the service of the Southern Confederacy." His background included a father who was governor of Missouri in 1844, a mother who was the daughter of a prominent physician, and an education that included classes at both Harvard and Yale. His interest in education would continue when he became governor of Missouri in 1885.14

Furthermore, historical accounts reveal influential MPA member J. C. Moore had a diverse professional career, including serving in the Confederate Army as a colonel under Major General Marmaduke. By the time Moore joined the MPA, he was licensed to practice law, had served in the Colorado legislature, was the first mayor of Denver, had worked at the St. Louis Times and had co-founded the Kansas City Times.15

A DISCUSSION OF JOURNALISM EDUCATION

However, despite evidence to the contrary, many traditional histories paint the nineteenth-century journalistic landscape as one where journalism education was universally scorned by serious journalists. When journalistic education was discussed, the prevailing opinion tended to be that the university was not considered the place for it, and discussion of professional education, as practiced by doctors, lawyers and the clergy, was largely absent.16 Albert Sutton, in Education for Journalism in the United States From Its Beginning to 1940, contended that it was not until the twentieth century that "state press associations began to lend active support to the movement in some localities."17

According to journalism historian Willard Bleyer in his 1927 book, Main Currents in the History of American Journalism, although there had been efforts at journalistic education before the twentieth century, it was not until the twentieth century that journalistic education took a "tangible form."18 Before the twentieth century an apprentice system had taught reporters the basics of reporting,19 and many journalists in the nineteenth century favored this system,20 even ridiculing the concept of formalized education.21

Alfred McClung Lee's The Daily Newspaper in America credited Civil War General Robert E. Lee with some of the first efforts in journalistic education in the nineteenth century.22 As president of Washington College, he authorized the first courses in journalism in 1869 in an effort to curb the journalistic excesses that he had witnessed during the war.23 Lee, however, did not experience smooth sailing in his endeavors. Historian Sidney Kobre described Lee's efforts in this manner: "On all sides, General Lee's school had met opposition, ridicule and scorn from newspapermen."24 Historian Alfred McClung Lee described the response to Lee's school as "feeble" and noted that the program only survived until 1878, closing less than a decade after its inception.25 There is no evidence to suggest that any notable students emerged from the experiment, according to scholar Douglas Birkhead.26

Maurine Beasley and Kathryn Theus point out that a journalism school for women was started in Detroit during this period.27 However, according to historian Frank Luther Mott, this was a period when "education for journalism remained only an idea, laughed at by most observers."28 For instance, Whitelaw Reid of the New York Tribune favored the concept of training but not institutional education.29 In 1873 he wrote:
Such an establishment as the New York Herald, or Tribune, or Times is the true college for newspaper students. Professor James Gordon Bennett or Professor Horace Greeley would turn out more real genuine journalists in one year than the Harvards, the Yales, and the Dartmouths could produce in a generation. . . . The genius for the work is in them [the journalists themselves]. It is not to be acquired at a college in Virginia or Massachusetts.30

During this time some universities began teaching courses in printing and editing. However, the interest in professional university education, not merely the offering of one or two courses on printing or editing, was not evident in these initiatives.31

JOSEPH PULITZER AND UNIVERSITY JOURNALISM EDUCATION

The traditional perspective on journalism education places Joseph Pulitzer as the key figure in founding university journalism education, a fact evident in Kobre's 1959 book Modern American Journalism in which he stated: "Although Pulitzer was the first to propose and initiate the movement for a journalism school, the first one became a reality in April, 1908 when the Missouri legislature voted the necessary funds to establish a School of Journalism at the University of Missouri."32 William F. May expressed a similar opinion that Pulitzer was the force behind the concept of a university journalism education in the 1986 article "Professional Ethics, The University and The Journalist." He stated: "The general turnaround occurred in the early twentieth century. By 1904 Joseph Pulitzer had endowed the Columbia School of journalism . . . and by 1913 the Columbia School of Journalism had opened its doors."33

Pulitzer was the original author of the view that university journalism education was his idea. In 1910, he commented, "I have long had an idea. It has been called impossible, ridiculous, fantastic. But I have finally persuaded the trustees of Columbia University that it is not as farfetched as it sounds and they are ready to accept it."34 In 1891 Pulitzer had made a proposal to officials at Columbia College for a school of journalism, but he was turned down. However, in 1903 he told a friend: "Before the century closes schools of journalism will be generally accepted as a feature of specialized higher education, like schools of law or medicine."35 Pulitzer's reference to the classical professions of law and medicine was not an accident. He saw journalism education as a means of professionalizing.36

Yet was Pulitzer the originator of the idea to professionalize journalism through university education? Evidence indicates much earlier roots.

AN UNHEARD OF TRAINING

The MPA minutes from the May 19, 1869, convention contained a strong argument in favor of schools of journalism. The speaker, publisher Colman, specifically cited the need for education as part of the pattern set up by the classical professions. As mentioned previously, he had been appointed a University of Missouri curator in the previous year, had a certificate to teach and a license to practice law, and had worked with clergy at a seminary.37 With his background in three classical professions, Colman pled:
The Teacher, the Physician, the Lawyer, and the Divine, must each undergo a thorough prefatory course, before being permitted to enter his chosen career. . . . But any particular training, or course of study, or lectures, or schools, or colleges to prepare young men for the most important of all professions--the Editorial--have never been heard of. That institutions of this kind could be established, and would be attended with the most beneficial results, can scarcely be doubted. Each member of the profession has now to learn for himself all of the duties devolving upon him.38

Perhaps the most significant part of this passage was the mention of the need for education in the pattern set by teachers, doctors, lawyers and the clergy, the last three of which were classical professions. Colman justified such professional education by commenting, "Other professions have been greatly benefited by special preparation and such preparation is a wise provision for proper qualification and special excellence."39

In 1874 MPA member Milo Blair closed an address to the MPA convention with another plea for journalism education in which he said: "In conclusion, I would say that the destiny of our country depends greatly on the influence the press henceforward shall exert, and that influence will rest immeasurably on the kind of education and training which the editor has and may still receive."40

At still another meeting in 1879, MPA member William F. Switzler specifically referred to university education for journalists:
I think there are many cogent reasons in support of the conviction, long entertained and often propounded by myself, that editing newspapers is as much a profession as practicing law or medicine, and that a department of journalism ought to be established, and I have no doubt at no distant day will be established, in our own and other Universities.41

University journalism education might not exist today without the early efforts of the MPA. Colman advocated such edution in 1869,42 not only before Pulitzer but even before Robert E. Lee started the first formal journalism education at Washington College. In 1873 the University of Missouri held a first of its kind lecture series on journalism, some believe due to Colman's influence.43 William F. Switzler's impassioned plea in 187944 reinforced the view. This was also the year that the University of Missouri carried its first course in journalism taught by David R. McAnally, Jr., entitled, "History of Journalism--Lectures with Practical Explanations of Daily Newspaper Life."45

MEETINGS AS EDUCATIONAL TRAINING SESSIONS

The MPA members, however, apparently were not content merely to talk about journalistic education. The minutes indicate they used the meetings as educational training sessions as well. MPA members saw the meetings as a vehicle to teach the members both the history and principles of journalism, part of informal continuing education. In an oral essay by Milo Blair, he defined the use of MPA annual addresses: "I see before me those . . . whose ability to teach more practically, than myself, none can question."46

In fact, most, if not all, of the annual addresses during the MPA's first decade were of an informal educational nature. Switzler made it clear that these early essays were designed as enlightenment for MPA members. The topics included journalism history, journalism theory and journalism ethics. He even compared the MPA in its educational function to the University of Missouri when he said in 1879, "Each [the University of Missouri and the MPA] is working out the problem of human progress, of higher civilization and of wiser and more wholesome government. Each is an educator."47

In a 1917 unpublished historical overview of the MPA, for the MPA's fiftieth anniversary, historian Floyd Shoemaker described the MPA's informal education function as part of its purpose:
The first school of Journalism in Missouri was not founded in 1906 or 1908, nor was it located in Columbia. Forty years before in St. Louis was this institution truly founded. More accurate would be the name, a school of journalists, [than] that of journalism, for this was the Missouri Press Association. During an existence of half a century, it reveals many of the features of an educational institution. Instruction was provided by the lectures of the deans, professors and teachers in the world of newspapers. . . . It stands today as it has for half a century, the Great Educator of Missouri Editors.48

HE continued this theme of the MPA as the informal educational institution of Missouri journalists.
As an Educator, the MPA has been a teacher of the purely intellectual and social--a liberalizer. . . . The face to face conversation, the floor debates for hours, the sittings side by side at banquet tables--these furnished another kind of Education. . . . The means at hand for the function of the Association as an Educator were legion and well has it served its purpose.49

Shoemaker even gave a description of the curriculum.

That the Association has well furnished this kind of instruction is obvious. . . . Not only in the fields of editorial writing, news gathering, reporting, cartooning, advertising, feature writing, and a score of related subjects, but also in > 


Transfer interrupted!

, type, ink, paper, wages, circulation, rates, dead-heading, and a hundred other topics has the Association been an instructor to Missouri editors.50

"THE NEWSPAPER BUSINESS IS A DISTINGUISHED PROFESSION"

The MPA continued to see education as important to journalism professionalization throughout the nineteenth century as is evidenced by the comments of MPA member and Mexico Ledger publisher R.W. White, who said in 1893: "The newspaper business is a distinguished profession and there should be a chair of journalism in our colleges so that young men could have an opportunity to educate themselves for newspaper work."51 The MPA proposed this to the Missouri legislature in 1895, but the resolution failed. The journalism school was finally established in 190852 directly due to pressure from the MPA,53 and the Columbia School of Journalism opened its doors soon after in 1912.54

Such schools were manifestations of professionalization.55 Those interested in professionalization of journalism at the turn of the century knew formal education was necessary if journalism was to achieve the professional status accorded to doctors and lawyers. This was evident from the words of Walter Williams, the first dean of the school of journalism at the University of Missouri, who wrote in 1910, "The new education for journalism differs from the old in its recognition of journalism as a profession, as law and medicine are professions."56

Non-journalists also recognized that professionalization efforts were resulting in schools of journalism. Visiting Missouri in 1908, United States presidential aspirant William Jennings Bryan stressed the importance of professional training by the University of Missouri journalism school. "I think that men can be taught to be journalists just as men can be taught to be lawyers, doctors, or engineers," he commented.57 This was an important aspect because the MPA was formed as a professional association and promoted professional goals such as education, association and codes of ethics.58 Colman stated:
Doubtless one of the leading objects [the founders] had in view in the organization of this association was to bring the members of the Press of this state into a closer and more intimate relationship with one another, that those social and professional courtesies might be cultivated that should exist among members of an honorable profession.59

PULITZER MAY HAVE BORROWED THE MPA CONCEPT

This link of education to professionalization may help explain why the professionally minded Missouri Press Association advocated journalism education at a time when it was not popular among other journalists. In 1869 when Colman was advocating university journalism education Pulitzer had just been hired for his first reporting job after driving a mule team, had not yet learned to write in English and had not settled on a career in journalism.60

Because the MPA promoted journalism education long before Pulitzer, it is possible Pulitzer borrowed the concept from the MPA. It would not have been the first time he had appropriated another's idea for himself. In the late nineteenth century, he took the idea for a typesetting machine invented by Ottmar Mergenthaler and called it the Rogers Typograph.61 A court issued a permanent injunction against Pulitzer using this machine on the basis that it was merely a modification of Mergenthaler's Linotype typesetting machine.62 He also took credit for inventing the "New Journalism," an honor more deserving of his New York World managing editor John Cockerill.63

Pulitzer might have had access to the MPA's perspective on journalistic professionalization early in his life since he learned to write in English under MPA member and St. Louis Times editor Stilson Hutchins.64 Perhaps Hutchins also taught Pulitzer a respect for the professionalization of journalism. He was an active MPA member and was even scheduled to deliver the annual address in 1870.65 Pulitzer would eventually become Hutchinsí close friend when both moved east--Hutchins founding the Washington Post and Pulitzer purchased the New York World.66 While at the St. Louis Times Pulitzer also may have worked with prominent MPA member and orator J.C. Moore, who was an editor at the St. Louis Times before founding the Kansas CityTimes.67 Thus, Pulitzer might have had access to the ideas of professionalization and journalistic education proposed by the MPA, as well as the MPA members who supported them. There is some indication that some MPA members in Missouri had little respect for Pulitzer, however. In 1890 MPA president J.W. Goodwin noted, "Joe Pulitzer never was a great writer."68

This is not to say that the MPA members totally originated the idea; they may have become interested in it through the efforts of Robert E. Lee. While northern journalists scoffed at Lee's efforts to professionalize, MPA members embraced his concept of journalistic education, perhaps because of an admiration for him. Prominent MPA member Switzler was on record as having a great admiration for Lee, delivering a eulogy for him in 1870,69 and Hutchins admired Lee so much that he named his son after Lee.70 Therefore, it may not be a coincidence that Colman advocated journalistic education71 at the May 19, 1869, MPA meeting72 just three months before Lee announced on August 19 a plan for journalism education at Washington College.73 On the other hand, Pulitzer may not have had the same love for Lee since Pulitzer had been a soldier in Philip Sheridan's army that forced Lee's surrender during the Civil War.74

CONCLUSION

The implications of recognizing an earlier start date for the concept of journalism education is that it underscores the apparent interest in professionalization fostered by members of the MPA. It should be noted that the MPA members were involved in other aspects of professionalization: they referred to themselves as professionals and to journalism as a profession twenty-five times in the 1867-76 minutes;75 they compared themselves to the traditional professions of doctors, lawyers and the clergy;76 and they proposed a code of ethics in 1876.77

If one looks at professionalization as a gradual scale, as sociologist Wilbert Moore has suggested,78 the call for university education in the mid-nineteenth century would be a benchmark in the professionalization process that culminated during the first part of the twentieth century. This does not mean the contributions of Pulitzer and Williams were not significant benchmarks of professionalization as well, but it does cast light on earlier journalists whose contributions have never been publicized and presents a new perspective on journalistic professionalization.

NOTES

79Stephen Banning, "Unearthing the Origin of Journalistic Professionalization in the Mid-Nineteenth Century," masterís thesis, University of Missouri, 1993.
2J.W. Barrett, comp., History and Transactions of the Editors and Publishers Association of Missouri (Canton: Canton Press Print, 1876).
3Daniel H. Calhoun, Professional Lives in America (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965), 18.
4William F. Switzler, "May 27, 1879 Annual Missouri Press Association Address," in The Proceedings, comp. M.B. Chapman (Columbia: Missouri Statesman Book & Job Print, 1879), 5.
5Frederic Hudson, Journalism in the United States: From 1690 To 1872 (New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1873), 660.
6Ibid., 666.
7Augustus Maverick, Henry J. Raymond and the New York Press for Thirty Years: Progress of American Journalism from 1840 to 1870 (Hartford: A.S. Hale and Co., 1870), 328.
8Ibid., 328-29.
9Gerald J. Baldasty, The Commercialization of News in the Nineteenth Century (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1992), 101.
10J.W. Barrett, comp., History and Transactions of the Editors and Publishers Association of Missouri (Canton: Canton Press Print, 1876), 3.
11John Reid, "May 20, 1874 Welcome Address for the Missouri Press Association," in History and Transactions, 74.
12Norman J. Colman, "May 19, 1869 Annual Missouri Press Association Address," in History and Transactions, 22-23.
13See History and Transactions, 7, 17; Jonas Viles, The University of Missouri: A Centennial History, 1839-1939 (Columbis: E.W. Stephens Co., 1939), 164; Frank F. Stephens, The History of the University of Missouri (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1962), 262, 267-68; Floyd Shoemaker, Missouri and Missourians: Land of Contrast and People of Achievement, vol. 1 (Chicago: Lewis Publishing Co., 1917), 991; and Walter Bickford Davis and Daniel S. Durrie, An Illustrated History of MissouriComprising Its Early Record, and Civil, Political and Military History (St. Louis: A.J. Hall and Co., 1876), 490-491.
14See W.L. Webb, Battles and Biographies of Missourians or the Civil War Period of Our State (Kansas City: Hudson-Kimberly Publishing Co., 1903), 311; and Floyd Shoemaker, Missouri and Missourians: Land of Contrast and People of Achievement, vol. 2, 96, 106.
15See Webb, Battles and Biographies of Missourians, 362; and Edward J. Gallagher, Founder of the Washington Post: A Biography of Stilson Hutchins, 1838-1912 (Laconia: Citizen Publishing Company, 1965), 61.
16De Forest OíDell, The History of Journalism Education in the United States (New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1935), 20.
17Albert A. Sutton, Education for Journalism in the United States from Its Beginning to 1940 (Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University, 1945), 12.
18Willard Bleyer, Main Currents in the History of American Journalism (Cambridge: Riverside Press, 1927), 426-27.
19Clifford G. Christians and Catherine L. Covert, Teaching Ethics in Journalism Education (New York: Hastings Center, 1980), 1.
20Hudson, Journalism in the United States, 714.
21See Hazel Dicken-Garcia, Journalistic Standards in Nineteenth Century America (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989), 218-19; and Maverick, Henry J. Raymond and the New York Press, 355.
22Alfred McClung Lee, The Daily Newspaper in America (New York: Macmillan Co., 1937), 659. See also OíDell, The History of Journalism Education, 5-19.
23Lee, The Daily Newspaper in America, 659.
24Sidney Kobre, Development of American Journalism (Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Co., 1969), 533.
25Lee, The Daily Newspaper in America, 660.
26Douglas Birkhead, "Presenting the Press: Journalism and the Professional Project," doctoral dissertation, University of Iowa, 1982, 239.
27Maurine H. Beasley and Kathryn T. Theus, The New Majority: A Look at What the Preponderance of Women in Journalism Education Means to Schools and to the Professions (New York: University Press of America, 1988).
28Frank Luther Mott, American Journalism: A History of Newspapers in the United States Through 250 Years, 1690 to 1940 (New York: Macmillan Co., 1945), 406.
29Kobre, Development of American Journalism, 533.
30Hudson, Journalism in the United States, 714.
31Sutton, Education for Journalism, 15-17.
32Sidney Kobre, Modern American Journalism (Tallahassee: Florida State University, 1959), 348.
33William F. May "Professional Ethics, The University, and The Journalist," Journal of Mass Media Ethics 1, no. 2 (spring/summer, 1986): 20.
34Iris Noble, Joseph Pulitzer: Front Page Pioneer (New York: Julian Messner, 1957), 177.
35Don C. Seitz, Joseph Pulitzer: His Life and Letters (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1924), 436.
36James Wyman Barrett, Joseph Pulitzer and His World (New York: Vanguard Press, 1941), 261.
37Davis and Durrie, An Illustrated History of Missouri, 490-91.
38Norman J. Colman, "May 19, 1869 Annual Missouri Press Assocation Address," in History and Transactions, 21.
39Ibid., 22.
40Milo Blair, "May 20, 1874 Annual Missouri Press Association Address," in History and Transactions, 86.
41William. F. Switzler, "May 27, 1879 Annual Missouri Press Association Address," in The Proceedings, M. B. Chapman, comp. (Columbia: Missouri Statesman Book and Job Print, 1879), 5.
42Colman, "May 19, 1869 Annual Missouri Press Association Address," in History and Transactions, 21.
43Floyd Calvin Shoemaker, "History of the First Fifty Years of the Missouri Press Association," 1917, Unpublished Manuscript, State Historical Society of Missouri Library, 160.
44Switzler, "May 27, 1879 Annual Missouri Press Association Address," in The Proceedings, 3.
45Sara Lockwood Williams, Twenty Years of Education for Journalism (Columbia: E.W. Stephens Publishing Co., 1929), 13.
46Blair, "May 20, 1874 Annual Missouri Press Association Address," in History and Transactions, 86.
47Chapman, The Proceedings, 4.
48Shoemaker, "History of the First Fifty Years of the Missouri Press Association," 147.
49Ibid., 151.
50Ibid., 148.
51R.W. White, "Newspapers and News," in The Proceedings, Walt M. Monroe, comp. (no publication information given, 1893), 54.
52Williams, Twenty Years of Education for Journalism, 3.
53See Viles, The University of Missouri, 413; Frank F. Stephens, A History of the University of Missouri, 382; and Williams, Twenty Years of Education for Journalism, 16.
54See Kobre, Development of American Journalism, 734; Mott, American Journalism, 604; and Bleyer, History of American Journalism, 350.
55Christians and Covert, Teaching Ethics in Journalism Education, 1.
56James Melvin Lee, History of American Journalism (New York: Garden City Publishing Co., Inc., 1923), 661.
57William H. Taft, Missouri Newspapers (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1964), 218.
58See Stephen Banning, "The Missouri Press Association: A Study of the Beginning Motivations, 1867-1876" (American Journalism Historians Association Convention, Lawrence, Kansas, Oct. 1992), 5-7; and Banning, "Unearthing the Origin of Journalistic Professionalization in the Mid-Nineteenth Century," 53-57.
59Colman, "May 19, 1869 Annual Missouri Press Association Address," in History and Transactions, 22-23.
60Gallagher, Founder of the Washington Post, 61.
61Ibid., 91.
62Ibid., 92.
63Mott, American Journalism, 440.
64Gallagher, Founder of the Washington Post, 61.
65Hutchins failed to show up that year at the MPA. See Barrett, History and Transactions, 41.
66Ibid.
67Ibid.
68J.W. Goodwin, "September 9, 1891 Annual Missouri Press Association Address," in The Proceedings, J.W. Jacks, comp. (no publishing information provided, 1891), 68.
69William Switzler, History of Boone County (St. Louis: Western Historical Co., 1882), 509.
70Gallagher, Founder of the Washington Post, 59.
71Barrett, History and Transactions, 21-22.
72Ibid., 17.
73Maverick, Henry J. Raymond and the New York Times, 355.
74W.A. Swanberg, Pulitzer (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1967), 3.
75Barrett, History and Transactions, 15, 21, 22, 23, 67, 68, 78, 81, 83, 87, 93, 115, 126, 132.
76Colman, "May 19, 1869 Annual Missouri Press Association Address, in History and Transactions, 21.
77William Switzler, "June 6, 1876 Annual Missouri Press Association Address," in History and Transactions, 131-132.
78Wilbert E. Moore, The Professions: Roles and Rules (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1970), 5-6.
 

1 Stephen Banning, "Unearthing the Origin of Journalistic Professionalization in the Mid-Nineteenth Century," MA thesis, University of Missouri, 1993.

2 J.W. Barrett, comp., History and Transactions of the Editors and Publishers Association of Missouri (Canton: Canton Press Print, 1876).

3 Daniel H. Calhoun, Professional Lives in America (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965), 18.

4 William F. Switzler, ìMay 27, 1879 Annual Missouri Press Association Address,î in The Proceedings, comp. M.B. Chapman (Columbia: Missouri Statesman Book & Job Print, 1879), 5.

5 Frederic Hudson, Journalism in the United States: From 1690 To 1872 (New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1873), 660.

6 Ibid., 666.

7 Augustus Maverick, Henry J. Raymond and the New York Press for Thirty Years: Progress of American Journalism from 1840 to 1870 (Hartford: A.S. Hale and Company, 1870), 328.

8 Ibid., 328, 329.

9 Gerald J. Baldasty, The Commercialization of News in the Nineteenth Century (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1992), 101.

10 J.W. Barrett, comp., History and Transactions of the Editors and Publishers Association of Missouri (Canton: Canton Press Print, 1876), 3.

11 John Reid, ìMay 20, 1874 Welcome Address for the Missouri Press Association,î in History and Transactions, 74.

12 Norman J. Colman, ìMay 19, 1869 Annual Missouri Press Association Address,î in History and Transactions, 22-23.

13 History and Transactions, 17, 7; Joas Viles, The University of Missouri: A Centennial History 1839-1939 (E.W. Stephens Company: Columbia, 1939), 164; Frank F. Stephens, The History of the University of Missouri (University of Missouri Press: Columbia, 1962), 262, 267, 268; Floyd Shoemaker, Missouri and Missourians: Land of Contrast and People of Achievement (Chicago: Lewis Publishing Company, 1917), Vol. 1: 991; Walter Bickford Davis and Daniel S. Durrie, An Illustrated History of Missouri Comprising Its Early Record, and Civil, Political and Military History (St. Louis: A.J. Hall and Company, 1876) 490-491.

14 W.L. Webb, Battles and Biographies of Missourians or the Civil War Period of Our State (Kansas City: Hudson-Kimberly Publishing Company, 1903), 311; Floyd Shoemaker, Missouri and Missourians: Land of Contrast and People of Achievement (Chicago: Lewis Publishing Company, 1917), Vol. 2: 96, 106.

15 Webb, Battles and Biographies of Missourians, 362; Edward J. Gallagher, Founder of the Washington Post: A Biography of Stilson Hutchins 1838-1912 (Laconia: Citizen Publishing Company, 1965), 61.

16 De Forest OíDell, The History of Journalism Education in the United States (New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1935), 20.

17 Albert A. Sutton, Education for Journalism in the United States from Its Beginning to 1940, (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University, 1945), 12.

18 Willard Bleyer, Main Currents in the History of American Journalism (Cambridge: The Riverside Press, 1927), 426-7.

19 Clifford G. Christians and Catherine L. Covert, Teaching Ethics in Journalism Education (New York: The Hastings Center, 1980), 1.

20 Hudson, Journalism in the United States, 714.

21 Hazel Dicken-Garcia, Journalistic Standards in Nineteenth Century America (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989), 218-19; Maverick, Henry J. Raymond and the New York Press, 355.

22 Alfred McClung Lee, The Daily Newspaper in America (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1937), 659. See also OíDell, The History of Journalism Education, 5-19.

23 Lee, The Daily Newspaper in America, 659.

24 Sidney Kobre, Development of American Journalism, (Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers, 1969), 533.

25 Lee, The Daily Newspaper in America, 660.

26 Douglas Birkhead, "Presenting the Press: Journalism and the Professional Project," Ph. D. dissertation, University of Iowa, 1982, 239.

27 Maurine H. Beasley and Kathryn T. Theus, The New Majority: A Look at What the Preponderance of Women in Journalism Education Means to Schools and to the Professions, (New York: University Press of America, 1988).

28 Frank Luther Mott, American Journalism: A History of Newspapers in the United States Through 250 Years 1690 to 1940, (New York: Macmillan Company, 1945), 406.

29 Kobre, Development of American Journalism, 533.

30 Hudson, Journalism in the United States, 714.

31 Sutton, Education for Journalism, 15-17.

32 Sidney Kobre, Modern American Journalism (Tallahassee: Florida State University, 1959), 348.

33 William F. May "Professional Ethics, The University, and The Journalist," Journal of Mass Media Ethics 1, no. 2 (spring/summer, 1986): 20.

34 Iris Noble, Joseph Pulitzer: Front Page Pioneer (New York: Julian Messner, Inc., 1957), 177.

35 Don C. Seitz, Joseph Pulitzer: His Life and Letters (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1924), 436.

36 James Wyman Barrett, Joseph Pulitzer and His World (New York: The Vanguard Press, 1941), 261.

37 Davis and Durrie, An Illustrated History of Missouri, 490-91.

38 Norman J. Colman, "May 19, 1869 Annual Missouri Press Assocation Address," in History and Transactions, 21.

39 Ibid., 22.

40 Milo Blair, "May 20, 1874 Annual Missouri Press Association Address," in History and Transactions, 86.

41 William. F. Switzler, "May 27, 1879 Annual Missouri Press Association Address," in The Proceedings, comp. M. B. Chapman (Columbia: Missouri Statesman Book and Job Print, 1879), 5.

42 Colman, "May 19, 1869 Annual Missouri Press Association Address," in History and Transactions, 21.

43 Floyd Calvin Shoemaker, "History of the First Fifty Years of the Missouri Press Association," 1917, Unpublished Manuscript, State Historical Society of Missouri Library, 160.

44 Switzler, "May 27, 1879 Annual Missouri Press Association Address," in The Proceedings, 3.

45 Sara Lockwood Williams, Twenty Years of Education for Journalism (Columbia: E.W. Stephens Publishing Company, 1929), 13.

46 Blair, "May 20, 1874 Annual Missouri Press Association Address," in History and Transactions, 86.

47 Chapman, Proceedings, 4.

48 Shoemaker, "History of the First Fifty Years of the Missouri Press Association," 147.

49 Ibid., 151.

50 Ibid., 148.

51 R.W. White, "Newspapers and News," in The Proceedings, comp. Walt M. Monroe (no publication information given, 1893), 54.

52 Williams, Twenty Years of Education for Journalism, 3.

53 Viles, The University of Missouri, 413; Frank F. Stephens, A History of the University of Missouri, 382; Williams, Twenty Years of Education for Journalism, 16.

54 Kobre, Development of American Journalism, 734; Mott, American Journalism, 604; Bleyer, History of American Journalism, 350.

55 Christians and Covert, Teaching Ethics in Journalism Education, 1.

56 James Melvin Lee, History of American Journalism (New York: Garden City Publishing Co., Inc., 1923), 661.

57 William H. Taft, Missouri Newspapers (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1964), 218.

58 Stephen Banning, "The Missouri Press Association: A Study of the Beginning Motivations, 1867 - 1876," (National AJHA Convention, Lawrence, Kansas, Oct. 1992), 5-7; Banning, "Unearthing the Origin of Journalistic Professionalization in the Mid-Nineteenth Century," 53-57.

59 Colman, "May 19, 1869 Annual Missouri Press Association Address," in History and Transactions, 22-23.

60 Gallagher, Founder of the Washington Post, 61.

61 Ibid., 91.

62 Ibid., 92.

63 Mott, American Journalism, 440.

64 Gallagher, The Founder of the Washington Post, 61.

65 Hutchins failed to show up that year at the MPA. Barrett, History and Transactions, 41.

66 Ibid.

67 Ibid.

68 J.W. Goodwin, "September 9, 1891 Annual Missouri Press Association Address," in The Proceedings, comp. J.W. Jacks (no publishing information provided, 1891), 68.

69 William Switzler, History of Boone County (St. Louis: Western Historical Company, 1882), 509.

70 Gallagher, Founder of the Washington Post, 59.

71 Barrett, History and Transactions, 21-22.

72 Ibid., 17.

73 Maverick, Henry J. Raymond and the New York Times, 355.

74 W.A. Swanberg, Pulitzer (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1967), 3.

75 Barrett, History and Transactions, 15, 21, 22, 23, 67, 68, 78, 81, 83, 87, 93, 115, 126, 132.

76 Colman, "May 19, 1869 Annual Missouri Press Association Address, in History and Transactions, 21.

77 William Switzler, "June 6, 1876 Annual Missouri Press Association Address," in History and Transactions, 131-132.

78 Wilbert E. Moore, The Professions: Roles and Rules (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1970), 5-6.

79


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